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ls

LS(1)                                                 User Commands                                                 LS(1)

 

 

 

NAME

       ls – list directory contents

 

SYNOPSIS

       ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

 

DESCRIPTION

       List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the  current directory by default).  Sort entries alphabetically if none of

       -cftuvSUX nor –sort.

 

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

 

       -a, –all

              do not ignore entries starting with .

 

       -A, –almost-all

              do not list implied . and ..

 

       –author

              with -l, print the author of each file

 

       -b, –escape

              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

 

       –block-size=SIZE

              use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below

 

       -B, –ignore-backups

              do not list implied entries ending with ~

 

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status  information)  with  -l:  show

              ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

 

       -C     list entries by columns

 

       –color[=WHEN]

              colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always’ or can be `never’ or `auto’.  More info below

 

       -d, –directory

              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links

 

       -D, –dired

              generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

 

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color

 

       -F, –classify

              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

 

       –file-type

              likewise, except do not append `*’

 

       –format=WORD

              across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

 

       –full-time

              like -l –time-style=full-iso

 

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

 

       –group-directories-first

              group directories before files.

 

              augment with a –sort option, but any use of –sort=none (-U) disables grouping

 

       -G, –no-group

              in a long listing, don’t print group names

 

       -h, –human-readable

              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

 

       –si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

 

       -H, –dereference-command-line

              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

 

       –dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir

              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

 

       –hide=PATTERN

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

 

       –indicator-style=WORD

              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), clas‐

              sify (-F)

 

       -i, –inode

              print the index number of each file

 

       -I, –ignore=PATTERN

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

 

       -k     like –block-size=1K

 

       -l     use a long listing format

 

       -L, –dereference

              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather

              than for the link itself

 

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

 

       -n, –numeric-uid-gid

              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

 

       -N, –literal

              print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)

 

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

 

       -p, –indicator-style=slash

              append / indicator to directories

 

       -q, –hide-control-chars

              print ? instead of non graphic characters

 

       –show-control-chars

              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls’ and output is a terminal)

 

       -Q, –quote-name

              enclose entry names in double quotes

 

       –quoting-style=WORD

              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape

 

       -r, –reverse

              reverse order while sorting

 

       -R, –recursive

              list subdirectories recursively

 

       -s, –size

              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

 

       -S     sort by file size

 

       –sort=WORD

              sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

 

       –time=WORD

              with  -l,  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status

              -c; use specified time as sort key if –sort=time

 

       –time-style=STYLE

              with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,  +FORMAT.   FORMAT  is  interpreted

              like  `date’;  if  FORMAT  is  FORMAT1FORMAT2,  FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to

              recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-’, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

 

       -t     sort by modification time

 

       -T, –tabsize=COLS

              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

 

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort  by  name  otherwise:  sort  by

              access time

 

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

 

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

 

       -w, –width=COLS

              assume screen width instead of current value

 

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

 

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

 

       -Z, –context

              print any SELinux security context of each file

 

       -۱     list one file per line

 

       –help display this help and exit

 

       –version

              output version information and exit

 

       SIZE  may  be  (or  may  be  an integer optionally followed by) one of following: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M

       ۱۰۲۴*۱۰۲۴, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

 

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with –color=never.  With  –color=auto,  ls

       emits  color  codes  only when standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment variable can

       change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

 

   Exit status:

       ۰      if OK,

 

       ۱      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

 

       ۲      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

 

AUTHOR

       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

 

REPORTING BUGS

       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org

       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>

       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

 

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright  ©  ۲۰۱۰  Free  Software  Foundation,   Inc.    License   GPLv3+:   GNU   GPL   version   ۳   or   later

       <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.

       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted

       by law.

 

SEE ALSO

       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If  the  info  and  ls  programs  are  properly

       installed at your site, the command

 

              info coreutils ‘ls invocation’

 

       should give you access to the complete manual.

 

 

 

GNU coreutils 8.5                                       April 2010                                                  LS(1)

نوشته ls اولین بار در مرجع اپن سورس ، گنو/لینوکس پدیدار شد.



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